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Glossary

 

ADEME

Placed under the supervision of the State and various ministries, the ADEME (Agency of the Environment and the Control of Energy), takes part in the implementation of the public policies in the fields of the environment, energy and sustainable development. In order to enable them to progress in their environmental step, the agency places at the disposal of the companies, the local communities, the public authorities and the general public, its capacities of expert testimony and council.

 

ALTERNATOR

An alternator is a rotary machine which converts the mechanical energy provided to the rotor in electrical energy with alternative course.
More than 95% of electrical energy is produced by alternators: electromechanical machines providing of the tensions of frequencies proportional at their number of revolutions.
This machine consists of a rotor (left revolving) and of a stator (left fixed).

The rotor is the inductor.

It can be made up of a permanent magnet (thus generating a constant field) or more usually an electromagnet ensures induction. This winding is fed in D.C. current. A system of regulation allows the adjustment of the tension and the phase of the produced current.

The stator is the armature.

It consists of rollings up which will be the seat of alternating electric current induced by the variation of the flow of the magnetic field due to the relative movement of the inductor compared to the armature.

 

ANAH

The National agency of habitat (ANAH) is a public corporation created in 1971. It has the role of implementing the national policy of development, rehabilitation and improvement of the park of existing private residences.

Attribution of subsidies:

Anah has been able to grant to the private individuals of the subsidies to carry out work in residences completed for at least 15 years. The owners must engage with:

To occupy or rent after work, according to the case, housing during 9 years, as main home.
To make complete work by professionals of the building.
Not to begin work before the deposit of the file.

Types of subsidized work:

Work must make it possible to improve the habitat as regards safety, of comfort, healthiness, equipment, accessibility and adaptation to the people physically handicapped people. They can also make it possible to save energy and to improve the soundproofing. This work can be realized in the privative or common parts of the buildings.

 

BATTERY

An accumulator battery or generally a battery, is a set of electric fencers connected to each other in order to create a generator of D.C. current of the capacity and desired tension.
The solar batteries are batteries directed for an operation with photovoltaic panels: lifespan, electric and anti-corrosive properties, maintenance.

 

CANADIAN WELL

The Canadian well, also called puit of Provence, is a geothermic system of surface.

It is a system of natural air-conditioning which heats and cools free your dwelling. Indeed with 2m of depth, the temperature of the ground is of 17°C in summer and 4°C in winter.
The principle of the Canadian well: Use of the heat capacities of the ground to ventilate the dwellings. The air obtained by the Canadian puit is much healthier, colder in summer and hotter in winter.

In summer: Cooling of the building thanks to the thermal inertia of the ground.

- A high energy contribution related to large picture windows.

- Possibility of giving up a traditional air-conditioning.

- Result: a healthy and pleasant housing.
                                                                             
 In winters: Pre-heating of the cold air external by thermal inertia of the ground.

- With the Canadian well, it is not necessary any more to envisage a device anti-condensation.

- Savings in heating in the event of use of a heat exchanger.

 

DPE

The Diagnosis of Performance energy or DPE is a thermal diagnosis carried out in France on real goods. It is one of the documents belonging to the file of technical diagnoses (DDT).

The DPE must be presented at the time of the sale or hiring of the residences and the tertiary buildings (offices, hotel…) since July 1st, 2007. The DPE gives a thermal state of the habitat by a label energy (classification of A to G) and a label climate (quantity of gas for greenhouse effect GES) and recommends actions of energy saving of housing or tertiary building on its heating, its air-conditioning, its production of medical warm water (ECS), but not on specific electricity (lighting, apparatuses electric household appliances…).

The DPE for a real estate must comprise 4 sections:

    * Yearly consumption of energy expressed in kWh and euros.
    * Positioning in consumption of energy/m2/year and in gas emission with greenhouse effect (GES)/m2/year
    * Description of the key data: insulation and constitution walls, roof, fenètres, boiler, etc
    * Description of the proposals for an improvement.

 

PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL

A photovoltaic cell is an electronics component which, exposed to the light (photons), generates electricity. It is the photovoltaic effect which is at the origin of the phenomenon. The current obtained is function of the incidental light. Produced electricity is function of illumination, the photovoltaic cell produces a D.C. current.

The photovoltaic cells most widespread consist of semiconductors, mainly containing silicon (Si) and more rarely of another semiconductors: sélénure of copper and indium (CuIn () 2 or CuInGa () 2), cadmium telluride (CdTe), etc They are generally appeared as fine plates of about ten centimetres on side, sandwiched between two metal contacts, for a thickness about the millimetre.

The cells are often joined together in photovoltaic solar modules or solar panels, according to the required power.

 

PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR PANEL

A photovoltaic solar module (or photovoltaic solar panel) is an electric generator of D.C. current made up of a set of photovoltaic cells connected between them electrically, which is used as basic module for the photovoltaic installations photovoltaic and in particular solar power stations.

The panels are generally mean rigid right-angled parallelepipeds (a few centimetres thickness), of which the length and the width are about the meter, for a surface about the m ², and a mass about ten kg. Various elements (connections electric, fixings, possible framework to ensure a sealing) are included.

The power peak (see lower definition) of a photovoltaic panel is about 100 to 200 Watts per square meter (either an output from 10 to 20%, manufacturers announcing approximately 15% for their best panels), which gives a power peak from 50 to 250 W by panel, according to its characteristics, in particular its size. This power is delivered in the form of D.C. current, which is perfect for a connection on a battery and many applications, but implies a transformation into alternative course by an inverter if it is a question of injecting it into a distribution network. The delivered tension depends on the type of the panels and the connection of the cells. It is about 10 to 100 volts. 

 

SOLAR AIR-CONDITIONING

The expression “air-conditioning solar” indicates the whole of the means of air-conditioning by using like primary energy resource the heat of the sun.
This mode of air-conditioning which can replace the use of resources fossil present like principal interest to be able to provide the most cold when the weather is hottest, which generally corresponds to the periods during which the sun is most available.

Advantages:
    * Ideal synchronization enters the refrigerating request and the solar layer.
    * Use of solar heat in complement of the heating in winter.
    * Very low electricity consumptions compared with those due to a refrigerating machine compressor.
    * No refrigerant polluting, degrading the ozone layer or for greenhouse effect (CFC, HCFC, HFC…).

 

SOLAR CONTRIBUTIONS

The solar contributions are energy entering thanks to the direct sunning by the glazings or surface transmission of the hot walls in contact with outside. They make it possible to establish a refrigerating assessment and to calculate a power of refrigerating machines or air-conditioner. It is then necessary to integrate the internal contributions such as the occupation and other internal loads (luminaries, electricity, etc).

 

SOLAR HEATING

The solar heating uses techniques allowing the heating of a building with solar energy, via solar panels with warm water (solar thermics). It makes it possible to ensure the requirements out of medical warm water and also the needs for heating of the buildings. The deposit rate of the needs is expressed in %. An auxiliary energy (fuel, gas, wood, direct electricity, CAP, etc) is necessary to ensure the temperatures of comfort out of medical warm water and heating.

 

SOLAR PANEL

A solar panel is a device intended to recover part of the energy of the solar radiation to convert it into a form of energy (electric or thermal) usable by the man.
One distinguishes two types of solar panels:

    * solar panels thermal, called thermal solar panels or simply solar panels, which convert the light into heat recovered and used in the form of warm water;
    * solar panels photovoltaic, called photovoltaic modules or simply solar panels, which convert the light into electricity. The solar photovoltaic one is commonly called statement.

 

THERMAL SOLAR PANEL

The thermal solar panel (or solar sensor) is a device designed to collect energy coming from the sun and to transmit it to coolant.
There exist various types of thermal solar panels according to the nature of coolant used and the level of temperature which they make it possible to reach.

One generally distinguishes the sensors with air from the sensors with water. The sensors with water are divided into three families:

    * not-glazed sensors (or sensors carpets), of a very simple structure (network of black plastic tubes) used primarily for the heating of the water of the swimming pools in summer.
    * glazed plane sensors: the fluid (water, often with antifreezing) passes in a serpentine behind a pane. They are inexpensive, function with a good output, but only during the summer.
    * tube collectors under vacuums: coolant circulates inside a double vacuum tube. The insulating vacuum being almost perfect, they function as well in summer as in winter, but are also more expensive.

The thermal solar panels reach into 2008 of the outputs of 80%

The solar panels with water are used for the heating and/or to produce warm water (ECS) in a solar-fired heater.

 

WIND MILL

A wind mill is a machine using the driving force of the wind. This force can be used mechanically (in the case of a wind mill of pumping), or to produce electricity (in the case of an aerogenerator). One speaks about wind farm or firm wind mill to describe the grouped production units (installed with ground or at sea).

The areas of the world where the wind fields are most numerous are, Germany, Spain, the United States and Denmark.

In France the wind power stations of electrical production are in full expansion on most of the territory. The Aude and Brittany, are geographical areas pionnières on the matter.


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